It is a medium-sized tree with a straight trunk of 15 to 22 meters in height and a girth of 1.5 to 1.8 meters. The bark is dark grey or brown and 1.3 cm thick. Leaves are 20 to 35 cm long and 9-18 cm wide, crowded at the end of branches. The fruit is a berry, 2 to 4.5 cm long, bright green, or blackish, shinning with a thick, soft pericarp. The fruit is oval and green in color with three seeds that turn juicy and grey after ripening. The exterior of the fruit is thick, soft, and rich with glucose and fragrance. It contains black and sparkling seeds of 1.5 to 2 cm in length, which have almond-shaped white-colored kernels inside. The seed coat is thin to thick and woody to crusty.
Phulwara butter contains 56.6% palmitic acid and 3.6% stearic acid, both of which are saturated fatty acids.It also contains 36.0% oleic acid along with 3.8% linoleic acid, both of which are unsaturated fatty acids. Oleic acid is a mono-unsaturated fatty acid and has one double bond at the 9th carbon of its hydrocarbon chain. Linoleic acid has two double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain of the acid.
It contains high contents of C16:0 and C18:1 fatty Acids, respectively. Phulwara butter may be a potential source of palmitic acid for the pharmaceutical industry.
Composition of fatty acids
Butter Phulwara gives stable emulsions due to the uniform triglyceride composition with high oxidative stability. It may be used as an ingredient in skincare products, massage creams, make-up, soap, sun care products, and body lotions. The butter can not only be used in daily cooking, but also in fueling lamps.
Phulwara butter is used to cook vegetables and curries. Likewise, this butter has a variety of applications in confectionery, pharmaceutical, vegetable ghee production, and candle manufacturing.
This butter is an effective massage for rheumatism. Also, it is used as an insecticide, nematicide, wormicide, molluscicide, and rodenticide. Phulwara butter can also be a source of saponin for the industry.